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Basic electronics interview questions and answers for freshers
Electronics Engineering (ECE) Interview Questions and Answers: Viewers those who are from the electronics branch and looking for the technical interview questions those are right place!! We have provided the technical interview questions for ECE freshers. Basic ECE interview question and answers are listed out here, Students who are from ECE stream and going to take job interview those can now check the interview questions and answers for freshers in electronics and communication here. All those ECE interview question and answers are specified in this page, Students who want to crack the Job interview those can check the electronics and communication engineering core interview questions.
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Students who looking for electronics and communication engineering interview questions and answers pdf and going to take the job interview those should start their interview preparation to grab your dream job. This page has completely focused on Electronics Engineering (ECE) Interview Questions and Answers, for all our ECE students have provided interview questions along with answers. Those who are going to take the Job interview, Prepare all the below questions and answers now. The interviewer can also follow these interview questions and ask these ECE questions in an interview. ECE Questions for interviewer are listed out here, Read all these questions and ask the candidates those who have attended a Job interview.
Electronics and Communication engineering core interview questions
1. What is Electronic?
The study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles.
2. What is communication?
Communication means transferring a signal from the transmitter which passes through a medium then the output is obtained at the receiver. (or)communication says as transferring of message from one place to another place called communication.
3. Different types of communications? Explain.
Analog and digital communication.
As a technology, analog is the process of taking an audio or video signal (the human voice) and translating it into electronic pulses. Digital on the other hand is breaking the signal into a binary format where the audio or video data is represented by a series of “1”s and “0”s.
Digital signals are immune to noise, quality of transmission and reception is good, components used in digital communication can be produced with high precision and power consumption is also very less when compared with analog signals.
4. What is sampling?
The process of obtaining a set of samples from a continuous function of time x(t) is referred to as sampling.
5.What are applications of DSP?
Some selected applications or digital signal processing that are often encountered in daily life are listed as follows:
- Telecommunication: Echo cancellation in telephone networks.
- Military Radar signal processing
- Consumer electronics Digital Audio/TV
- Instrumentation and control
- Image processing image representation, image compression
- Speech processing speech analysis methods are used in automatic speech recognition
- Medicine Medical diagnostic instrumentation such as computerized tomography (CT)
- Seismology DSP techniques are employed in geophysical exploration for oil and gas.
- Signal Filtering Removal of unwanted background noise.
6.What are the drawbacks of Walsh codes?
Walsh codes have the following drawbacks:
- The codes do not have a single, narrow auto correlation peak.
- The spreading is not over the whole bandwidth; instead the energy is spread over a number of discrete frequency components.
- Although the full sequence cross correlation is identically zero, this does not hold for a partial sequence cross correlation function. Thus advantage of using orthogonal codes is lost.
- Orthogonality is also affected by channel properties like multi path.
7. Explain radio environment in building.
- Building penetration: Building penetration depends on the material used for construction and architecture used. This varies building to building and is based on building construction.
- Building Height Effect: The signal strength is always higher at top floor and generally floor gain height is about 2.7dB/floor which is not dependent on building construction.
- Building Floor Reception: The signal isolation between floors in a multi floor building is on the average about 20dB. Within a floor of 150 * 150 feet, the propagation loss due to interior walls, depending on the wall materials is about 20 dB between the strong and the weak areas.
8. What is stop band?
A stopband is a band of frequencies, between specified limits, in which a circuit, such as a filter or telephone circuit, does not let signals through, or the attenuation is above the required stopband attenuation level.
9. Explain RF?
Radio frequency (RF) is a frequency or rate of oscillation within the range of about 3 Hz to 300 GHz. This range corresponds to frequency of alternating current electrical signals used to produce and detect radio waves. Since most of this range is beyond the vibration rate that most mechanical systems can respond to, RF usually refers to oscillations in electrical circuits or electromagnetic radiation.
10. What is modulation? And where it is utilized?
Modulation is the process of varying some characteristic of a periodic wave with an external signals.
Radio communication superimposes this information bearing signal onto a carrier signal.
These high frequency carrier signals can be transmitted over the air easily and are capable of travelling long distances.
The characteristics (amplitude, frequency, or phase) of the carrier signal are varied in accordance with the information bearing signal.
Modulation is utilized to send an information bearing signal over long distances.
11. What is demodulation?
Demodulation is the act of removing the modulation from an analog signal to get the original baseband signal back. Demodulating is necessary because the receiver system receives a modulated signal with specific characteristics and it needs to turn it to base-band.
12. Name the modulation techniques.
For Analog modulation–AM, SSB, FM, PM and SM
Digital modulation–OOK, FSK, ASK, Psk, QAM, MSK, CPM, PPM, TCM, OFDM
13. Explain the steps involved in demodulating a signal.
Once the signal is coded, modulated and then sent, the receiver must demodulate the signal. This is usually done in two steps: Spectrum spreading (e.g., direct sequence or frequency hopping) modulation is removed.The remaining information bearing signal is demodulated by multiplying with a local reference identical in structure and synchronized with received signal.
14. How can a Pseudo Random Noise Code be usable?
To be usable for direct sequence spreading, a PN code must meet the following conditions:
- Sequence must be built from 2 leveled numbers.
- The codes must have sharp auto correlation peak to enable code synchronization.
- Codes must have a low cross-correlation value, the lower it is, more are the number of users which can be allowed in the system.
- The codes should be “balanced” i.e. the difference between ones and zeros in code may only be one.
15. What is a base station?
Base station is a radio receiver/transmitter that serves as the hub of the local wireless network, and may also be the gateway between a wired network and the wireless network.
16. How many satellites are required to cover the earth?
3 satellites are required to cover the entire earth, which is placed at 120 degree to each other. The life span of the satellite is about 15 years.
17. What is a repeater?
A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation.
18. What is an Amplifier?
An electronic device or electrical circuit that is used to boost (amplify) the power, voltage or current of an applied signal.
19.Explain the concept of frequency re-use.
The whole of the geographical area is divided into hexagonal shape geometrical area called cell and each cell having its own transceiver. Each BTS (cell site) allocated different band of frequency or different channel. Each BTS antenna is designed in such a way that i cover cell area in which it is placed with frequency allotted without interfering other sell signal.
Bluetooth is designed to be a personal area network, where participating entities are mobile and require sporadic communication with others. It is Omni directional i.e. it does not have line of sight limitation like infra red does. Ericsson started the work on Bluetooth and named it after the Danish king Harold Bluetooth. Bluetooth operates in the 2.4 GHz area of spectrum and provides a range of 10 meters. It offers transfer speeds of around 720 Kbps