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Gallbladder Cancer is a very rare tumor which arises where is the gallbladder located, which malignant cells form in the tissues. Based on the studies, the risk factors include female and also native American. gallbladder cancer symptoms are jaundice, fever, body pains, nausea, bloating, abdominal pain due to lumps, vomitings etc. gallbladder cancer is very difficult to diagnose in a starting stage, there are no noticeable signs in the early stage of gallbladder cancer. Behind the liver, the gallbladder is hidden. Gallbladder surgery is one of the treatment to remove the gallbladder tumor completely and there is some other gallbladder cancer treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation etc.
How to diagnose Gallbladder Cancer
Gallbladder cancer is very difficult to diagnose in a starting stage, there are no noticeable signs in the early stage of gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder cancer symptoms which often resembles various illness. So, the tumor in the gallbladder is difficult to trace out. Gallbladder cancer can be detected and diagnosed by Ultrasound, liver function tests, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or CA 19-9 assay, CT scan, MRI, X-ray, biopsy. In some conditions, through blood tests, gallbladder tumor can be detected in tests.
Where is the Gallbladder Cancer Takes Place
Gallbladder tumor is a disease in which the cancer cells persist in the gallbladder tissues. Malignant is another term of Cancer, At upper abdomen, gallbladder is located in a pear-shaped organGallbladder cancer can be cured only in its early stage, once it has spread, a tumor which is arisen at gall bladder can be removed by the surgery. Through radiation, chemotherapy and other latest medical treatments, doctors remove the gallbladder cancer. The functioning of the gallbladder is to stores a bile, which is a fluid made by the liver to digest the fat. When the food is broken down in the intestines and stomach, then the gallbladder arises the bile through a tube which is also refers as common bile duct. The common bile duct connects the gallbladder and liver to the initial part of the small intestine.
Gallbladder Cancer Symptoms
The gallbladder wall has three tissue layers such as Mucosal (innermost) layer, Muscularis (middle, muscle) layer and Serosal (outer) layer. These three layers are supporting connecting tissue, initially, gallbladder cancer commences in the innermost layer and expands through outermost layer as it arises. As per studies, being female has more risk factor of occurring gallbladder cancer. And also being native American also have more chances of developing gallbladder tumor. In the early stages of gallbladder tumor, There are no signs or symptoms to detect cancer. because Symptoms of the gallbladder are like many other illnesses.
- Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes).
- Pain above the stomach.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Lumps in the abdomen.
Gallbladder Cancer treatment
Gallbladder cancer is detected in some conditions when the gallbladder is removed for the patients due to some reasons, for example, gallbladder stones or bladder removal surgery or removing bile duct cancer. In order to plan gallbladder cancer treatment, it is very essential to know that, gallbladder cancer can be removed through surgery or not. Usually, tests, stages of gallbladder cancer and detection of a tumor in the gallbladder are done at the same time. following are the various number of ways to detect and diagnose the gallbladder cancer in humans. Following tests to diagnose the tumor may be used:
- Physical exam and history
- Ultrasound exam
- Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) assay
- CA 19-9 assay
- CT scan (CAT scan)
- Blood chemistry studies:
- Chest X-ray
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
- ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography)
- PTC (percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography)
- combination of radiation therapy and Radiosensitizers may kill more cancer cells easily
Certain Factors which affect the gallbladder cancer prognosis
gallbladder cancer prognosis (chances of recovery) and gallbladder cancer treatment options depending upon following ways. gallbladder cancer treatment may also depend on the patient age and also be considering the general health. following are the certain Factors which affect the gallbladder cancer prognosis, which is a chance of recovery.
- Gallbladder cancer staging, where the tumor has extended from the gallbladder to other places in the individual’s body.
- Which type of gallbladder cancer, can look cancer cell through a microscope.
- Gallbladder cancer can be whether removed completely, through surgery.
- Whether the Gallbladder tumor has been detected and diagnosed or come back.
What causes gallbladder cancer
Gallbladder cancer causes due to inheritance certain genes which is DNA repair also plays a major role for arises of gallbladder cancer. Cancer can be cured only if it is found before the tumor spreads to other places in the body. Then only, Tumor can be removed by surgery. If gallbladder cancer has spread to other areas of a body then, palliative treatment can develop the patient’s life by managing the complications and signs of cancer.
Gallbladder Cancer Stages
Stages of Gallbladder cancer are stage 0 – stage 4 gallbladder cancer. Following are the stage 0 – stage 4 gallbladder cancer:
Stage 0 gallbladder cancer
Under 0 stage, in the gallbladder, abnormal cells are formed and detected in the mucosal layer. Stage 0 also refers as carcinoma in situ. The formation of abnormal cells may become tumor and extend in to various nearby tissues.
Stage 1 gallbladder cancer
Under this stage 1 gallbladder cancer, the tumor has formed. Stage 1 has classified into another sub stages such as Stage 1A and Stage 1B.
Stage 1A: Tumor has spread in the distance of the mucosal layer to the tissue or the muscularis layer.
Stage 1B: Under, stage 1B tumor has extended far away from the muscle layer of the connective tissue around the muscle.
Stage 2 gallbladder cancer
Under this stage 1 gallbladder cancer, the tumor has drastically arisen. Stage 2 has classified into another sub stages such as Stage 2A and Stage 2B.
Stage 2A: Tumor has expanded in the distance to the visceral peritoneum or to the liver or beyond the any of the nearby organs such as stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, or bile ducts outside the liver.
a thin layer of tissue that covers the gallbladder is simply called as the visceral peritoneum.
Stage 2B: Under this stage, cancer spreads highly. Nearby innermost layer to the connective tissue and also to far away distance of lymph nodes or to the muscle layer or nearby the muscle layer to the connective tissue which is around the muscle and also nearby the lymph nodes. Or through a thin layer of tissue that covers the gallbladder or liver or beyond the organs such as a stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, or bile ducts outside the liver.
Stage 3 gallbladder cancer
In this stage, gallbladder stones have expands to a main blood vessel in the liver or beyond the organs and may have expands to nearer lymph nodes.
Stage 4 gallbladder cancer
Under this final stage, the tumor has spread to nearer lymph nodes or to organs beyond from the gallbladder.
Gallbladder Tumor Treatment
For gallbladder cancer, doctors give various treatments which include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. For some types of gallbladder cancer, they provide targeted therapy which uses the material that attacks the cancer cells which are affected without affecting the normal cells. To prevent gallbladder cancer, in clinical trials, New types of treatment are being tested such as Radiosensitizers, which are drugs that make cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. With the combination of radiation therapy and Radiosensitizers may kill more cancer cells easily.